Select an ngram size and spelling type, enter search terms and pos (parts of speech, optional), select (or not) the graph smoothing and rolling average options, and click Draw Graph.
A search term can be:
- A whole word (love) or words separated by commas (love,loue), or
- A regular expression (/lo[uv]e/) or expressions separated by commas (/lo[uv]e/,/abo[uv]e/). Note that "/" delimiters are required for regular expressions. Note that we assume that regular expressions start at the beginning of a word and finish at the end of a word; so, for example, /lo[uv]e/ will match "love" and "loue". To find strings inside larger words, use the ".*" modifiers. for example, /.*love.*/ will match "beloved", "loved" and "glove".
A pos (part of speech) can be:
- A value selected from the autocomplete helper on the input field, or
- A fully formed pos value (n1) or values separated by commas (n1,n2), or
- A regular expression (/n.*/) or expressions separated by commas (/n.*/,/v.*/), or
Please note that we do put a limit on the complexity of queries. If you exceed those limits, we return what we can, and provide a message to that effect.
For more about regular expressions, please see our post on Using the N-gram Browser. For a full list of the nupos part-of-speech codes, please see the section titled "Parts of Speech Table" in Morphology and NUPOS, an article written by John Norstad.
spellings: original regularized lemmas
If you type one or two letters into a pos input field, you'll see a subset of the pos tags available for use in queries. And, of course, you may leave the pos input field(s) blank, and the browser will disregard part-of-speech when graphing search terms. Try typing:
a to see all adverbs pos
c to see all conjunctions pos
d to see determiner pos
j to see all adjectives pos
n to see all nouns pos
pi, pn, to see po for all pronouns pos
pp to see all prepositions pos
uh to see all interjections pos
v to see all verbs pos
The full set of part of speech tags is:
a-acp -- acp word as adverb
av -- adverb
av-an -- noun-adverb as adverb
av-c -- comparative adverb
avc-jn -- comparative adj/noun as adverb
av-d -- determiner/adverb as adverb
av-dc -- comparative determiner/adverb as adverb
av-ds -- superlative determiner as adverb
av-dx -- negative determiner as adverb
av-j -- adjective as adverb
av-jc -- comparative adjective as adverb
av-jn -- adj/noun as adverb
av-js -- superlative adjective as adverb
av-n1 -- noun as adverb
av-s -- superlative adverb
avs-jn -- superlative adj/noun as adverb
av-vvg -- present participle as adverb
av-vvn -- past participle as adverb
av-x -- negative adverb
c.* -- all conjunctions,
c-acp -- acp word as conjunction
cc -- coordinating conjunction
cc-acp -- acp word as coordinating conjunction
c-crq -- wh-word as conjunction
ccx -- negative conjunction
crd -- numeral
cs -- subordinating conjunction
cst -- 'that' as conjunction
d.* -- all determiners,
d -- determiner
dc -- comparative determiner
dg -- determiner in possessive use
ds -- superlative determiner
dt -- article
dx -- negative determiner as adverb
fw-fr -- French word
fw-ge -- German word
fw-gr -- Greek word
fw-it -- Italian word
fw-la -- Latin word
fw-mi -- word in unspecified other language
j.* -- all adjectives,
j -- adjective
j-av -- adverb as adjective
jc -- comparative adjective
jc-jn -- comparative adj/noun
jc-vvg -- present participles as comparative adjective
jc-vvn -- past participle as comparative adjective
j-jn -- adjective-noun
jp -- proper adjective
js -- superlative adjective
js-jn -- superlative adj/noun
js-vvg -- present participle as superlative adjective
js-vvn -- past participle as superlative adjective
j-vvg -- present participle as adjective
j-vvn -- past participle as adjective,
n.* -- all nouns,
n1 -- singular, noun
n1-an -- noun-adverb as singular noun
n1-j -- adjective as singular noun
n2 -- plural noun
n2-acp -- acp word as plural noun
n2-an -- noun-adverb as plural noun
n2-av -- adverb as plural noun
n2-dx -- determiner/adverb negative as plural noun
n2-j -- adjective as plural noun
n2-jn -- adj/noun as plural noun
n2-vdg -- present participle as plural noun, 'do'
n2-vhg -- present participle as plural noun, 'have'
n2-vvg -- present participle as plural noun
n2-vvn -- past participle as plural noun
ng1 -- singular possessive, noun
ng1-an -- noun-adverb in singular possessive use
ng1-j -- adjective as possessive noun
ng1-jn -- adj/noun as possessive noun
ng1-vvn -- past participle as possessive noun
ng2 -- plural possessive, noun
ng2-jn -- adj/noun as plural possessive noun
n-jn -- adj/noun as noun
njp -- proper adjective as noun
njp2 -- proper adjective as plural noun
njpg1 -- proper adjective as possessive noun
njpg2 -- proper adjective as plural possessive noun
np1 -- singular, proper noun
np2 -- plural, proper noun
npg1 -- singular possessive, proper noun
npg2 -- plural possessive, proper noun
np-n1 -- singular noun as proper noun
np-n2 -- plural noun as proper noun
np-ng1 -- singular possessive noun as proper noun
n-vdg -- present participle as noun, 'do'
n-vhg -- present participle as noun, 'have'
n-vvg -- present participle as noun
n-vvn -- past participle as noun
ord -- ordinal number
p-acp -- acp word as preposition
pc-acp -- acp word as particle
pi.*|^pn.*|^po.* -- all pronouns,
pi -- singular, indefinite pronoun
pi2 -- plural, indefinite pronoun
pi2x -- plural, indefinite pronoun
pig -- singular possessive, indefinite pronoun
pigx -- possessive case, indefinite pronoun
pix -- indefinite pronoun
pn22 -- 2nd person, personal pronoun
pn31 -- 3rd singular, personal pronoun
png11 -- 1st singular possessive, personal pronoun
png12 -- 1st plural possessive, personal pronoun
png21 -- 2nd singular possessive, personal pronoun
png22 -- 2nd person, possessive, personal pronoun
png31 -- 3rd singular possessive, personal pronoun
png32 -- 3rd plural possessive, personal pronoun
pno11 -- 1st singular objective, personal pronoun
pno12 -- 1st plural objective, personal pronoun
pno21 -- 2nd singular objective, personal pronoun
pno31 -- 3rd singular objective, personal pronoun
pno32 -- 3rd plural objective, personal pronoun
pns11 -- 1st singular subjective, personal pronoun
pns12 -- 1st plural subjective, personal pronoun
pns21 -- 2nd singular subjective, personal pronoun
pns31 -- 3rd singular subjective, personal pronoun
pns32 -- 3rd plural objective, personal pronoun
po11 -- 1st singular, possessive pronoun
po12 -- 1st plural, possessive pronoun
po21 -- 2nd singular, possessive pronoun
po22 -- 2nd person possessive pronoun
po31 -- 3rd singular, possessive pronoun
po32 -- 3rd plural, possessive pronoun
pp.* -- all prepositions,
pp -- preposition
pp-f -- preposition 'of'
px11 -- 1st singular reflexive pronoun
px12 -- 1st plural reflexive pronoun
px21 -- 2nd singular reflexive pronoun
px22 -- 2nd plural reflexive pronoun
px31 -- 3rd singular reflexive pronoun
px32 -- 3rd plural reflexive pronoun
pxg21 -- 2nd singular possessive, reflexive pronoun
q-crq -- interrogative use, wh-word
r-crq -- relative use, wh-word
sy -- alphabetical or other symbol
uh.* -- all interjections,
uh -- interjection
uh-av -- adverb as interjection
uh-crq -- wh-word as interjection
uh-dx -- negative interjection
uh-j -- adjective as interjection
uh-jn -- adjective/noun as interjection
uh-n -- noun as interjection
uh-v -- verb as interjection
v.* -- all verbs,
vb2 -- 2nd singular present of 'be'
vb2-imp -- 2nd plural present imperative, 'be'
vb2x -- 2nd singular present, 'be'
vbb -- present tense, 'be'
vbbx -- present tense negative, 'be'
vbd -- past tense, 'be'
vbd2 -- 2nd singular past of 'be'
vbd2x -- 2nd singular past, 'be'
vbdp -- plural past tense, 'be'
vbdx -- past tense negative, 'be'
vbg -- present participle, 'be'
vbi -- infinitive, 'be'
vbm -- 1st singular, 'be'
vbmx -- 1st singular negative, 'be'
vbn -- past participle, 'be'
vbp -- plural present, 'be'
vbz -- 3rd singular present, 'be'
vbzx -- 3rd singular present negative, 'be'
vd2 -- 2nd singular present of 'do'
vd2-imp -- 2nd plural present imperative, 'do'
vd2x -- 2nd singular present negative, 'do'
vdb -- present tense, 'do'
vdbx -- present tense negative, 'do'
vdd -- past tense, 'do'
vdd2 -- 2nd singular past of 'do'
vdd2x -- 2nd singular past negative, verb
vddp -- plural past tense, 'do'
vddx -- past tense negative, 'do'
vdg -- present participle, 'do'
vdi -- infinitive, 'do'
vdn -- past participle, 'do'
vdp -- plural present, 'do'
vdz -- 3rd singular present, 'do'
vdzx -- 3rd singular present negative, 'do'
vh2 -- 2nd singular present of 'have'
vh2-imp -- 2nd plural present imperative, 'have'
vh2x -- 2nd singular present negative, 'have'
vhb -- present tense, 'have'
vhbx -- present tense negative, 'have'
vhd -- past tense, 'have'
vhd2 -- 2nd singular past of 'have'
vhdp -- plural past tense, 'have'
vhdx -- past tense negative, 'have'
vhg -- present participle, 'have'
vhi -- infinitive, 'have'
vhn -- past participle, 'have'
vhp -- plural present, 'have'
vhz -- 3rd singular present, 'have'
vhzx -- 3rd singular present negative, 'have'
vm2 -- 2nd singular present of modal verb
vm2x -- 2nd singular present negative, modal verg
vmb -- present tense, modal verb
vmb1 -- 1st singular present, modal verb
vmbx -- present tense negative, modal verb
vmd -- past tense, modal verb
vmd2 -- 2nd singular past of modal verb
vmd2x -- 2nd singular present, modal verb
vmdp -- plural past tense, modal verb
vmdx -- past negative, modal verb
vmi -- infinitive, modal verb
vmn -- past participle, modal verb
vmp -- plural present tense, modal verg
vv2 -- 2nd singular present of verb
vv2-imp -- 2nd present imperative, verb
vv2x -- 2nd singular present negative, verb
vvb -- present tense, verg
vvbx -- present tense negative, verb
vvd -- past tense, verb
vvd2 -- 2nd singular past of verb
vvd2x -- 2nd singular past negative, verb
vvdp -- past plural, verb
vvdx -- past tense negative, verb
vvg -- present participle, verb
vvi -- infinitive, verb
vvn -- past participle, verb
vvp -- plural present, verb
vvz -- 3rd singular preseent, verb
vvzx -- 3rd singular present negative, verb
xx -- negative
zz -- unknown or unparsable token