Select an ngram size and spelling type, enter search terms and pos (parts of speech, optional), select (or not) the graph smoothing and rolling average options, and click Draw Graph.

A search term can be:

  • A whole word (love) or words separated by commas (love,loue), or
  • A regular expression (/lo[uv]e/) or expressions separated by commas (/lo[uv]e/,/abo[uv]e/). Note that "/" delimiters are required for regular expressions. Note that we assume that regular expressions start at the beginning of a word and finish at the end of a word; so, for example, /lo[uv]e/ will match "love" and "loue". To find strings inside larger words, use the ".*" modifiers. for example, /.*love.*/ will match "beloved", "loved" and "glove".

A pos (part of speech) can be:

  • A value selected from the autocomplete helper on the input field, or
  • A fully formed pos value (n1) or values separated by commas (n1,n2), or
  • A regular expression (/n.*/) or expressions separated by commas (/n.*/,/v.*/), or

Please note that we do put a limit on the complexity of queries. If you exceed those limits, we return what we can, and provide a message to that effect.

For more about regular expressions, please see our post on Using the N-gram Browser. For more on part-of-speech tags, please see the NUPOS documentation.

ngramSize: unigrams bigrams trigrams
spellings: original regularized lemmas

gram 1: search term: pos:
gram 2: search term: pos:
gram 3: search term: pos:
Graph smoothing      Rolling Average:   

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Help for nupos part-of-speech tags:

If you type one or two letters into a pos input field, you'll see a subset of the pos tags available for use in queries. And, of course, you may leave the pos input field(s) blank, and the browser will disregard part-of-speech when graphing search terms. Try typing:

a to see all adverb pos
c to see all conjunction pos
d to see determiner pos
j to see all adjective pos
n to see all noun pos
p to see all pronoun pos
acp to see all preposition pos
uh to see all interjection pos
v to see all verb pos

The full set of part of speech tags is:

ab -- an abbreviations
acp -- prepositions some of which are also used as adverbs or conjunctions
av.* -- all adverbs
av -- adverb
av-d -- determiners as adverb
av-j -- adjective as adverb
av-n -- noun as adverb
av-ord -- ordinal as adverb
av-vg -- present participle as adverb
av-vn -- past participle as adverb
avc -- comparative adverb
avc-d -- comparative determiner as adverb
avc-j -- comparative adjective as adverb
avs -- superlative adverb
avs-d -- superlative determiner as adverb
avs-j -- superlative adjective as adverb
avx -- negative adverb
avx-d -- negative determiner as adverb
cc.* -- all conjunctions
cc -- coordinating conjunction
ccx -- negative conjunction
crd -- cardinal number
crd-m -- a monetary amount
crq -- wh- words as interrogative or relative pronouns
cs -- conjunction
d.* -- all determiners
d -- determiner
dc -- comparative determiner
ds -- superlative determiner
dx -- negative determiner
emptycell -- a temporary token to mark empty cell eleents
fan -- Anglo-Saxon word
fdu -- Dutch word
fes -- Spanish word
ffr -- French wprd
fge -- German word
fgr -- Greek word
fhe -- Hebrew word
fin -- American Indian word
fit -- italian word
fla -- Latin word
fmi -- dialect word or word in
fsc -- Scottish word
fwe -- Welsh word
fxx -- word in a non-Roman script, mainly Greek or Hebrew
j.* -- all adjectives
j -- adjective
j-av -- adjective from adverb
j-mi -- adjective
j-vg -- present participle as adjective
j-vmd -- adjective from past modal verb
j-vn -- past participle as adjective
jc -- comparative adjective
jc-vg -- comparative adjective from present participle
jc-vn -- comparative adjective from past participle
jnn -- proper adjective
js -- superlative adjective
js-vg -- superlative adjective from present participle
js-vn --
n.* -- all nouns
n1 -- singular noun
n1-j -- adjective used as noun
n1-mi -- miscellaneous word class used as noun
n1-vg -- noun from present participle (gerund)
n1-vm -- noun from modal verb present
n1-vmd -- noun from modal verb past
n1-vn -- noun from past participle (gerund)
n2 -- plural noun
n2-crq -- crq word used as noun
n2-j -- adjective used as plural noun
n2-mi -- miscellaneous wordclass used as plural noun
n2-ord -- ordinal used as plural noun
n2-uh -- exclamation used as plural noun
n2-vg -- plural noun from present participle
n2-vn --
ng1 -- single noun, genitive
ng1-j --
ng1-mi -- miscellaneous wordclass used as genitive noun
ng1-ord -- ordinal used as genitive noun
ng1-vg -- genitive noun from present participle
ng1-vn -- genitive noun from past participle
ng2 -- genitive plural noun
ng2-j -- adjective used as plural noun genitive
ng2-vn -- past participle as genitive plural
nn1 -- proper noun
nn2 -- a plural name
nng1 -- proper noun, genitive
nng2 -- genitive plural proper noun
nnp -- A particle that is part of a name
ord -- ordinal number
^pi.*|^pn.*|^po.* -- all pronouns
pi -- indefinite pronoun
pi-d -- determiner as indefinite pronoun
pi2 -- determiner as indefinite plural pronoun
pi2-d -- determiner as plural indefinite pronoun
pi2x -- negative indefinite pronoun plural
pig -- indefinite pronoun, genitive
pig-d -- determiner as indefinite pronoun, genitive
pig2-d -- determiner as indefinite pronoun, genitive plural
pigx -- negative indefinity pronoun, genitive
pigx-d -- determiner as negative indefinite pronoun, genitive
pix -- negative indefinite pronoun
pix-d -- negative determiner as indefinit pronoun
pn -- personal pronoun
png -- personal pronoun, genitive
pno -- personal pronoun, objective
pns -- personal pronoun, subjective
po -- possessive pronoun
pr -- a reflexive pronoun
prg -- genitive of reflexive pronoun
prt -- a particle
sy -- a symbol
uh.* -- all exclamations
uh -- exclamation
uh-av -- exclamation from adverb
uh-crq -- exclamation from crq word
uh-j --
uh-mi -- exclamation from miscellaneous wordclass
uh-n -- noun as exclamation
uh-v -- verb used as exclamation
uhx -- negative exclamation
v.* -- all verbs
vm2 -- modal verb, 2nd person singular
vmb -- modal verb, present
vmbp -- plural present of modal verb
vmbx -- negative modal verb
vmd -- modal verb, past
vmd2 -- modal verb, past, 2nd person singular
vmd2x --
vmdp --
vmdx -- modal verb, past, negative
vv2 -- verb, present, 2nd person singular
vvb -- verb, present
vvbx -- verb, present, negative
vvd -- verb, past
vvd2 -- verb, past, 2nd person singular
vvdp -- verb, past, plural
vvdx -- verb, past, negative
vvg -- verb, present participle
vvi --
vvm -- first person singular of 'be'
vvmx --
vvn -- verb, past participle
vvnx --
vvp -- verb, present, plural
vvz -- verb, 3rd person singular
vvzx --
wd -- this tag is introduced in manual review to identify tokens that the automatic parser got wrong
xx -- negative
z0 --
zz -- this tag is introduced in manual review to identify tokens that the automatic parser got wrong

EEBO-TCP data preparation by Anupam Basu, made possible by Morphadorner, developed by Philip R. "Pib" Burns of Northwestern University. Interactive visualization by Stephen Pentecost.