N-gram Browser show instructions Select an ngram size and spelling type, enter search terms and pos (parts of speech, optional), select (or not) the graph smoothing and rolling average options, and click Draw Graph. A search term can be: A whole word (love) or words separated by commas (love,loue), or A regular expression (/lo[uv]e/) or expressions separated by commas (/lo[uv]e/,/abo[uv]e/). Note that "/" delimiters are required for regular expressions. Note that we assume that regular expressions start at the beginning of a word and finish at the end of a word; so, for example, /lo[uv]e/ will match "love" and "loue". To find strings inside larger words, use the ".*" modifiers. for example, /.*love.*/ will match "beloved", "loved" and "glove". A pos (part of speech) can be: A value selected from the autocomplete helper on the input field, or A fully formed pos value (n1) or values separated by commas (n1,n2), or A regular expression (/n.*/) or expressions separated by commas (/n.*/,/v.*/), or Please note that we do put a limit on the complexity of queries. If you exceed those limits, we return what we can, and provide a message to that effect. For more about regular expressions, please see our post on Using the N-gram Browser. For more on part-of-speech tags, please see the NUPOS documentation. ngramSize: unigrams bigrams trigrams Shareable Link spellings: original regularized lemmas gram 1: search term: pos: gram 2: search term: pos: gram 3: search term: pos: Graph smoothing Rolling Average: None 5 year 10 year 15 year 20 year Use the slider to narrow the date range Generating the graph. Thank you for waiting. Help for nupos part-of-speech tags: If you type one or two letters into a pos input field, you'll see a subset of the pos tags available for use in queries. And, of course, you may leave the pos input field(s) blank, and the browser will disregard part-of-speech when graphing search terms. Try typing: a to see all adverb pos c to see all conjunction pos d to see determiner pos j to see all adjective pos n to see all noun pos p to see all pronoun pos acp to see all preposition pos uh to see all interjection pos v to see all verb pos The full set of part of speech tags is: ab -- an abbreviations acp -- prepositions some of which are also used as adverbs or conjunctions av.* -- all adverbs av -- adverb av-d -- determiners as adverb av-j -- adjective as adverb av-n -- noun as adverb av-ord -- ordinal as adverb av-vg -- present participle as adverb av-vn -- past participle as adverb avc -- comparative adverb avc-d -- comparative determiner as adverb avc-j -- comparative adjective as adverb avs -- superlative adverb avs-d -- superlative determiner as adverb avs-j -- superlative adjective as adverb avx -- negative adverb avx-d -- negative determiner as adverb cc.* -- all conjunctions cc -- coordinating conjunction ccx -- negative conjunction crd -- cardinal number crd-m -- a monetary amount crq -- wh- words as interrogative or relative pronouns cs -- conjunction d.* -- all determiners d -- determiner dc -- comparative determiner ds -- superlative determiner dx -- negative determiner emptycell -- a temporary token to mark empty cell eleents fan -- Anglo-Saxon word fdu -- Dutch word fes -- Spanish word ffr -- French wprd fge -- German word fgr -- Greek word fhe -- Hebrew word fin -- American Indian word fit -- italian word fla -- Latin word fmi -- dialect word or word in fsc -- Scottish word fwe -- Welsh word fxx -- word in a non-Roman script, mainly Greek or Hebrew j.* -- all adjectives j -- adjective j-av -- adjective from adverb j-mi -- adjective j-vg -- present participle as adjective j-vmd -- adjective from past modal verb j-vn -- past participle as adjective jc -- comparative adjective jc-vg -- comparative adjective from present participle jc-vn -- comparative adjective from past participle jnn -- proper adjective js -- superlative adjective js-vg -- superlative adjective from present participle js-vn -- n.* -- all nouns n1 -- singular noun n1-j -- adjective used as noun n1-mi -- miscellaneous word class used as noun n1-vg -- noun from present participle (gerund) n1-vm -- noun from modal verb present n1-vmd -- noun from modal verb past n1-vn -- noun from past participle (gerund) n2 -- plural noun n2-crq -- crq word used as noun n2-j -- adjective used as plural noun n2-mi -- miscellaneous wordclass used as plural noun n2-ord -- ordinal used as plural noun n2-uh -- exclamation used as plural noun n2-vg -- plural noun from present participle n2-vn -- ng1 -- single noun, genitive ng1-j -- ng1-mi -- miscellaneous wordclass used as genitive noun ng1-ord -- ordinal used as genitive noun ng1-vg -- genitive noun from present participle ng1-vn -- genitive noun from past participle ng2 -- genitive plural noun ng2-j -- adjective used as plural noun genitive ng2-vn -- past participle as genitive plural nn1 -- proper noun nn2 -- a plural name nng1 -- proper noun, genitive nng2 -- genitive plural proper noun nnp -- A particle that is part of a name ord -- ordinal number ^pi.*|^pn.*|^po.* -- all pronouns pi -- indefinite pronoun pi-d -- determiner as indefinite pronoun pi2 -- determiner as indefinite plural pronoun pi2-d -- determiner as plural indefinite pronoun pi2x -- negative indefinite pronoun plural pig -- indefinite pronoun, genitive pig-d -- determiner as indefinite pronoun, genitive pig2-d -- determiner as indefinite pronoun, genitive plural pigx -- negative indefinity pronoun, genitive pigx-d -- determiner as negative indefinite pronoun, genitive pix -- negative indefinite pronoun pix-d -- negative determiner as indefinit pronoun pn -- personal pronoun png -- personal pronoun, genitive pno -- personal pronoun, objective pns -- personal pronoun, subjective po -- possessive pronoun pr -- a reflexive pronoun prg -- genitive of reflexive pronoun prt -- a particle sy -- a symbol uh.* -- all exclamations uh -- exclamation uh-av -- exclamation from adverb uh-crq -- exclamation from crq word uh-j -- uh-mi -- exclamation from miscellaneous wordclass uh-n -- noun as exclamation uh-v -- verb used as exclamation uhx -- negative exclamation v.* -- all verbs vm2 -- modal verb, 2nd person singular vmb -- modal verb, present vmbp -- plural present of modal verb vmbx -- negative modal verb vmd -- modal verb, past vmd2 -- modal verb, past, 2nd person singular vmd2x -- vmdp -- vmdx -- modal verb, past, negative vv2 -- verb, present, 2nd person singular vvb -- verb, present vvbx -- verb, present, negative vvd -- verb, past vvd2 -- verb, past, 2nd person singular vvdp -- verb, past, plural vvdx -- verb, past, negative vvg -- verb, present participle vvi -- vvm -- first person singular of 'be' vvmx -- vvn -- verb, past participle vvnx -- vvp -- verb, present, plural vvz -- verb, 3rd person singular vvzx -- wd -- this tag is introduced in manual review to identify tokens that the automatic parser got wrong xx -- negative z0 -- zz -- this tag is introduced in manual review to identify tokens that the automatic parser got wrong EEBO-TCP data preparation by Anupam Basu, made possible by Morphadorner, developed by Philip R. "Pib" Burns of Northwestern University. Interactive visualization by Stephen Pentecost.